The oldest document regarding the history of St. Barbara's Church comes from September 5, 1338. This is a letter from the City Council sent to Pope Benedict XII (1334-1342) with a request to grant indulgences to the faithful visiting the cemetery chapel built in St. Mary's Cemetery by the townsman Mikołaj Wierzynek. In the years 1394-1402, the three-bay chapel was enlarged by two bays (probably funded by Queen Jadwiga). In addition to the main altar, it had four side altars.
Sermons in Polish were preached in the chapel - moved from St. Mary's Church - and services were held for the brotherhoods existing at the church. During the session of the Sejm in Kraków (November 1, 1536 - March 10, 1537), at the request of the deputies and with the consent of the senators, King Sigismund I (1506 - 1548) ordered the transfer of Polish sermons to the large St. Mary's Church, and German sermons to the small St. Mary's Church. Barbara. This act is a testimony to the awakening of Poles' awareness and national pride and the result of the process of Polonization of German middle-class families.
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